FmonERSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FgramERSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TSCSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
LProline_M_ugg
CIMMYT
6
medium to high infection
CIMMYT
GABA_M_pgg
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CSSSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
GY_Adj_tha
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TslBlastSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EturcSev_E_pct
brown
4
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BusseolaInc_Ct_plntPlot
GY_DW_kgha
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BSDMInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
GAsh_M_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GSucrose_M_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CRustSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ERInc_Cmp_pct
semi open
3
FungDis_E_text
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
YLChl_M_CCI
RProl_M_ugg
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PpolySev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GCol_E_1to9
CIMMYT
BmaySev_E_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
strongly pointed
6
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CSSSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
3
conical
very vigorous
1
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Silk_Date_ymd
SD
2
very weak to weak
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AflavERSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
GY_Rank_number
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
dense
3
semi-dent
4
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
EndoLys_M_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GABA_M_ugg
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GxE
EWid_M_mm
CIMMYT
GWid_M_mm
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
very strong
5
very long
5
GTrp_NIRS_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
TslGlBAnCol_E_1to2
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
TRustSev_E_pct
GY_FW_kgPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
RustSev_E_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Sen_E_0to10
CIMMYT
AspERSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
1
absent
PDMInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
TslTyp_E_1to3
UpESh_E_1to4
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CLSSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GRArr_E_1to4
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Chl_M_CCI
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BwSpotSev_E_1to5
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GLSSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
MRCVInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
GW_FW_g1000grn
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CSCMSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
irregular
2
CIMMYT
DMSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
5
severly infested
ELLng_M_cm
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CSmutInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
GOil_NIRS_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ELW_M_g
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
TslExer_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
TslSiz_E_1to3
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
BHskCovInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GTrp_M_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
DMSSev_E_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
200KW
GW_DW_g200grn
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
RLodgInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
MSVSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CRustSev_E_1to9
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CTMInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
FmonSRSev_E_1to9
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GOil_M_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GProline_M_mgg
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
PH_M_cm
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
AflavERSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MSTVInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
very short
1
EPo_E_1to3
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
CSucrose_M_umolg
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GLng_M_mm
3
dark green
BmaySev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MLNSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GY_DW_gPlot
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SmaySev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
OA_M_Mpa
SilkGrwR_Cmp_cmday
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PytSRInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
TslAnCol_E_1to5
CIMMYT
EHvst_Ct_earPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TslBN_Ct_branch
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
2
slightly (20%) damaged
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CSCInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DMSInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
TRustSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FgramERSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
AspERSev_E_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PLSSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
HSmutSev_E_1to9
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Shell_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
MSVSev_E_1to9
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
orange
6
CIMMYT
WeevInc_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CSCMSev_E_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
FusERSev_E_1to9
GWLostWeev_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
PHTslB_M_cm
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GLSSev_E_1to5
1
sparse
GUpSSh_E_1to6
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
DMJInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GGlucose_M_pct
StenSRInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GNC_M_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
ASI_Cmp_day
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SCMVInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
MSTVInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FmonSRSev_E_1to5
Significantly (70%) damaged
4
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
FungDis_E_0to1
3
primary-secondary-tertiary
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BactSRInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
SteWiltInc_Ct_plntPlot
CSCMSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
1
excellent
6
51-60% dead leave area
TslDen_E_1to3
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
PAsp_E_1to5
1
large
CIMMYT
PLSSev_E_1to9
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
entity
3
intermediate grain hardness
GTW_M_lbbsh
GxE
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EW_M_gear
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
LCol_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Mat_Cmp_Cday
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MaturityGDU
SdlngVig_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EndoTrp_M_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CSmutSev_E_1to9
1
no blasting
LateWiltInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
FgramSRInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Sen_E_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Tillering_Ct_tllrplnt
CobGlCol_E_1to3
CIMMYT
DTM
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Mat_DT_day
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
WeevN_Ct_weevil
GW_Adj_g1000grn
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
small
3
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GxE
GY_FW_lbPlot
ERInc_Ct_earPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
5
Semi-flint, flint with a soft cap
AWormDmg_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
HSmutSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MCob_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
OP_M_Mpa
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
pop
7
TslGlAnCol_E_1to2
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
DMSev_E_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
BCLSSev_E_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
5
highly (>80%) damaged
EDia_M_cm
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
EWormInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DMJInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
PericCol_E_1to5
LateWiltInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
MSVSev_E_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GW_DW_g100grn
100KW
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
GMoi_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ShellCobW_FW_gPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
medium
2
LGBDmg_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
2
semi-floury (morocho), with an external layer of hard endoseprm.
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
HSmutSev_E_1to5
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GGlucose_M_ugmg
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
DMSSev_E_1to9
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
MCob_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FgramSRInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
100%
1
GMoi_NIRS_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
BCLSSev_E_1to9
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
AleuCol_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EW_DW_kgPlot
GY_DW_kgPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
present
2
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ALBInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
round
4
medium
3
CIMMYT
GSucrose_M_umolg
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GY_FW_tha
CIMMYT
flint
6
DMVInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AphDmg_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
HskCov_E_1to5
CIMMYT
LABA_M_ngg
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GThk_M_mm
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
SdlngDisInc_Ct_plntPlot
TSCSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
StrigaPN_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
RGlucose_M_ngug
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
high infection
7
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ShellCobW_FW_kgPlot
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TslBW_DW_g
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GY_DW_tha
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
GProt_NIRS_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
3
purple
BHskCovInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
PsacchInc_Ct_plntPlot
CT_M_C
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
PERSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
CharRInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
2
95%
SCMVInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
3
intermediate
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
StrigaDmg_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EWormDmg_M_cm
TRustSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AntAnCol_E_1to9
CIMMYT
GVitA_M_µgg
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GZinc_M_ppm
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
PERSev_E_1to9
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CSCInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DMVSev_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
1
floury
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
ShtPub_E_1to3
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
SteWiltInc_Cmp_pct
PHFL_M_cm
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EShape_E_1to3
ChiloDmg_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CSmutSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AnthesisGDU
Ant_Cmp_Cday
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
RustSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
MLNSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
4
reddish
LAsh_NIRS_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
PsacchInc_Cmp_pct
MRFVInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SmaySev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
2
cream
GTex_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
PUnif_E_1to3
FgramERSev_E_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
0
absent
MSVInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BCLSSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Silk_DT_day
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DTS
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EN_Cmp_earplnt
MSVInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
5
dent
primary
1
CIMMYT
EturcSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Mat_Date_ymd
MD
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GLys_M_pct
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
BwSpotSev_E_1to9
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MLNSev_E_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GW_Adj_g100grn
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
LErect_E_1to4
EturcSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
mixed
3
CIMMYT
DiabroticaDmg_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
yellow
4
desirable
3
intermediate
2
CIMMYT
RustSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
StdGerm_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
DiatraeaDmg_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DMSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PLSSev_E_pct
1
colorless
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CSSSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
3
moderately (50% ) infested
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TslGlBAnCol_E_1to5
CIMMYT
highly resistant, clean no (%) infection
1
CIMMYT
GLSSev_E_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FusSRInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
present
1
other
5
CLSSev_E_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AstriInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
EndoProt_M_pct
CIMMYT
ALBInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
5
orange
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
BmaySev_E_1to9
9
severe infection
CIMMYT
RLodgInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FmonERSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
severely rolled leaves, undesirable
5
CobGlAnCol_E_1to9
CIMMYT
MRCVInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
SilkAnCol_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
FmonSRInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
EndoCol_E_1to6
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
2
sun red
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EGrwR_Cmp_gplntday
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PRI_M_idx
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
AstriInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
StBorDmg_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DMVInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
moderately (50% ) damaged
3
CIMMYT
GY_FW_gPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TslOpen_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GxE
ELng_M_mm
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
semi-flint
2
EDmg_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PytSRInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PpolySev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
TslGlAnCol_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GY_RelChk_pct
red
3
mottled
7
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BLSBSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
4
moderate to high level of blasting
1
no infection
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SmaySev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
susceptible, disease symptoms covering upto 70%
4
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FusERSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GStarch_M_pct
low to moderate level of blasting
2
LSucrose_M_umolg
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
TslGlBAnCol_E_1to9
2
short
1
unrolled
CIMMYT
BLSBSev_E_1to9
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
LLng_M_cm
CIMMYT
semi-hard and semi-transparent grains
2
PDMInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
SLodgInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
2
green
ELSen_DT_day
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
DTELSen
4
variegated
LAsh_M_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GW_FW_g200grn
CIMMYT
CSmutSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GY_RGY_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
green
1
2
weak
FusSRInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
slightly (20%) infested
2
2
normal
1
lax
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BLSBSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
MRDVInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GRN_Ct_rowear
CIMMYT
EAsp_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
RSucrose_M_ngug
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
3
dent
2
bronze
pale yellow
3
CIMMYT
StenSRInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MRDVInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
conical-cylindrical
2
4
long
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DMSSev_E_1to5
poor
4
71-80% dead leave area
8
pointed
5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GProt_Cmp_pct
6
medium to strong
EN_Ct_earPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
4
strong
DMSInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GW_FW_g100grn
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
SilkLng_M_cm
strong
7
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FmonSRSev_E_pct
4
Semi-dent, intermediate between dent and flint but closer to dent
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
LWid_M_cm
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
PHvst_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Shell_Cmp_ratio
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FmonERSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
PStand_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
WI_M_idx
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SRInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
very high infection
8
BHskCovInc_E_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EPo_Cmp_ratio
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
BusseolaDmg_E_1to5
2
ear around mid-plant
2
grayyish white
GAsh_NIRS_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
3
red
CIMMYT
PVig_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
3
medium
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
ELng_M_cm
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EW_FW_gPlot
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
SCond_M_mmolm2s
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
3
cylindrical
CIMMYT
CSmutInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ELChl_M_CCI
semi erect
2
TslGlAnCol_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EndoHard_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CRustSev_E_1to5
4
Significantly (70%) infested
other
5
CIMMYT
TGW
TKW
GW_DW_g1000grn
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
1000KW
EH_M_cm
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DTA
Ant_DT_day
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CharRInc_Cmp_pct
2
good germination (70-89%)
ELSen_Date_ymd
ELSenD
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
3
dense
indented
2
2
good
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CTMInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
BSDMInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
31-40% dead leaf area
4
21-30% dead leaf area
3
semi-soft and semi-opaque grains
4
CIMMYT
SLodgInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
white cap
8
1
low ear position
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
LSucrose_M_mgg
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GN_Cmp_grnplnt
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Ant_Date_ymd
CIMMYT
AD
5
medium infection
AspERSev_E_1to9
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GY_Adj_kgha
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
light purple
2
EWormInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MRFVInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
AflavERSev_E_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
secondary
2
Opaque 2/QPM
9
intermediate germination (30-69%)
3
PERSev_E_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
hard and transparent grains
1
MAIZE ontology
CIMMYT
TSCSev_E_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GY_FW_kgha
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
red
9
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GTyp_E_1to11
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
AntAnCol_E_1to2
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BwSpotSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FusERSev_E_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
NDVI_M_idx
low infection
3
not severely rolled leaves
4
BactSRInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
7
61-70% dead leave area
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
HSmutInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
LRollSev_E_1to5
poor germination (11-29%)
4
1
white
soft and opaque grains
5
EW_FW_kgPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
5
very weak
compact
2
GW_Adj_g200grn
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
StemCol_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
absent
1
GIron_M_ppm
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
absent or very weak
1
3
high ear position
3
dark purple
HSmutInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CLSSev_E_1to9
sweet
8
resistant, disease symptoms covering up to 20%
2
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
AntAnCol_E_1to5
2
vigorous
RABA_M_ngg
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
3
normal
6
white cap
medium
5
purple
5
81-90% dead leave area
9
very low infection
2
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
SRInc_Ct_plntPlot
Aflatox_M_ppb
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
LodgInc_E_1to5
CIMMYT
SdlngDisInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FmonSRInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
RootCapac_M_uF
1
no infestation
4
weak
weak
3
very strong
9
moderate level of blasting
3
level
3
1
white
PpolySev_E_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
1
excellent germination (90-100%)
4
open
brown
5
weak to medium
4
4
purple
1
white
very high level of blasting
5
2
cylindrical-conical
3
intermediate
3
red
1
regular
5
brown
5
postrate
3
semi horizontal
colorless
1
0
no dead leaf area
4
rounded
2
turgid leaves
1
very compact
purple
4
5
highly susceptible, disease symptoms covering >80%
1
conical
cylindrical
1
1
erect
attribute
5
41-50% dead leave area
8
strong to very strong
clean, no damage
1
5
very poor germination (0-10%)
spiral
4
3
straight
1
light green
2
yellow
drooping
4
3
moderately susceptible, disease symptoms covering up to 50%
5
very poor
1
shrunken
1
flint
1-10% dead leaf area
1
11-20% dead leaf area
2
acronym
4
low to medium infection
DW GY - Computation
Calculate shelled grain yield per unit area calculated in dry weight basis.
PytSRInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by pythium stalk rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Busseola damage
Plant damage caused by Busseola larvae.
BusseolaDmg
Busseola damage
Observe the plant damage caused by Diabrotica per plot.
DiabroticaDmg - Estimation
Common smut (Ustilago maydis, syn. U. zeae)incidence.
Common smut incidence
Common smut incidence
CSmutInc
aspect
Plant aspect
Qualitative observation of plant ideotype. In another word, it rates characteristics such as plant and ear height, uniformity of plants, disease and insect damage, and lodging.
PAsp
plant/plot
RProl
Proline content
Root proline content
Proline content in the root.
g/1000grain
Observe shape of uppermost ear.
UpESh - Estimation
SteWiltInc - Computation
Divide the total number of SteWilt damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Measure moisture of a grain sample using NIRS moisture analyzer.
NIRS Moi - Measurement
NIRS method for whole-grain tryptophan content.
NIRS GTrp- Measurement
Count the number of plants that are affected by stenocarpella stalk rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
StenSRInc - Counting
Adjusted GY - Computation
Calculate shelled grain yield per unit area adjusted to 12.5% grain moisture.
Estimation of root mass at the end of the stress using an electrical capacitance meter.
RootCapac
capacitance
Root capacitance
Common smut severity
CSmutSev
Common smut (Ustilago maydis, syn. U. zeae) severity.
Common smut severity
Count the number of ears.
EN - Counting
Chilo damage
ChiloDmg
Chilo (Chilo partellus) damage.
Chilo damage
GYRank - Computation
It is calculated as the numerical position of the progeny when yields are arrenged from highest to lowest.
Divide the total number of EWDMG damaged ears by the total number of plants harvested.
EWormInc - Computation
Aspergillus ear rot severity
Aspergillus ear rot severity
Aspergillus ear rot severity.
AspERSev
Fusarium moniliforme ear rot severity.
Fusarium moniliforme ear rot severity
FmonERSev
Fusarium moniliforme ear rot severity
EarW Individual - Measurement
Harvest a mature upper ear and measure its weight
EH - Measurement
Recommended to take 6 alternating plants per plot and measure the height between the base of a plant to the insertion of the top (uppermost) ear of the same plant, enter the data individually in the FieldBook and calculate the average.
LateWiltInc
Late wilt (Cephalosporium maydis) incidence.
Late wilt incidence
Late wilt incidence
GCol - Estimation
Observe color of grains.
1-3 Plant uniformity scale
Shell - Computation
Use formula to calculate ear sheeling ratio.
vigor
Seedling vigor.
Seedling vigor
SdlngVig
GW Adjusted - Computation
Compute grain weigh adjuted to 12.5% moisture.
Standard method for plant vigor
PVig - Estimation
Maize lethal necrosis severity
MLNSev
Maize lethal necrosis severity
Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) severity.
Standard method for cob tassel color. The anthocyanin coloration should be observed on the middle third of the uppermost cob, after the removal of some of the grains.
CobGlCol - Estimation
1-9 disease scoring scale
Head smut (Sphacelotheca reiliana) incidence.
Head smut incidence
HSmutInc
Head smut incidence
1-5 WeevDmgInc scale
NIRS GAsh - Measurement
NIRS method for whole-grain ash content
%
Standard method for grain number.
GN - Computation
Sucrose content
GSucrose
Grain sucrose content
Sucrose content in the grain
cm
Divide the total number of MSTV damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
MSTVInc - Computation
Ear shelling ratio
The ratio of grain to total ear weight.
Shelling ratio
Shell
mmol /m2/s
CT
canopy temperature
Canopy temperature.
Canopy temperature
NIRS method for oil content
NIRS GOil - Measurement
TslSiz - Estimation
Score the tassels based on size using 1-3 categorical scale.
Count the number of plants with the stem lodged. The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
SLodgInc - Counting
Maize rough dwarf virus (MRDV) incidence.
Maize rough dwarf virus incidence
MRDVInc
Maize rough dwarf virus incidence
1-5 Grain texture scale
Army worm (syn. Spodoptera exempta) damage.
Army worm damage
AWormDmg
Army worm damage
Phaeosphaeria leaf spot (Phaeosphaeria maydis) severity.
Phaeosphaeria leaf spot severity
Phaeosphaeria leaf spot severity
PLSSev
Maize stripe virus incidence
Maize stripe virus (MSTV) incidence.
Maize stripe virus incidence
MSTVInc
harvested number
Number of ears harvested.
Ear harvested number
EHvst
Starch content
Grain starch content
GStarch
Whole-grain starch content.
ELng - Measurement
Measure, when applicable, ear length of at least 20 representative plants per accession, record the data in the fieldbook.
FW GY - Computation
Calculate shelled grain yield per unit area calculated in fresh (field) weight basis.
GTW - Computation
Standard method for grain test weight.
A ratio between the reflectance at a water band wavelength to a nearby reference wavelength where there is no absorption due to water content variability.
WI
water index
Water index
Count the number plants that are damaged by busseola (african stem borer) per plot.
BusseolaInc - Counting
MCob - Computation
Divide the total number of Chupon plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Divide the total number of FusSR damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
FusSRInc - Computation
Stenocarpella ear rot severity
Stenocarpella ear rot severity
SmaySev
Stenocarpella (=Diplodia) ear rot severity.
Tassel branch number
number
TslBN
Number of branches on tassel.
Striga plant number
Number of Striga hermonthica plants.
Plant number
StrigaPN
ear/plot
Maize bushy stunt severity
Maize bushy stunt (caused by mycoplasma like organism, MLO) severity.
Maize bushy stunt severity
CSCMSev
Count the number of plants that are affected by black bundle per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
AstriInc - Counting
day
1-5 damage scoring scale
AflavERSev - Estimation
Observe aspergillus flavus ear rot severity on the harvested ears per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Count the number of plants that are affected by sugarcane mosaic virus per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
SCMVInc - Counting
FungDis - Estimation
Observe the plants that are damaged by any fungal diseases.
Score the plants per plot combining several agronomical and morphological characters of plants such plant height, ear height, stem/root loading. Note: Combination of traits usually differ from one breeder to another depending on type of study.
PAsp - Estimation
CSmutSev - Estimation
Observe common smut severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Sucrose content
CSucrose
Sucrose content in the cob
Cob sucrose content
Sorghum downy mildew incidence
Sorghum downy mildew incidence
DMSInc
Sorghum downy mildew (Peronosclerospora sorghi) incidence.
1-2 absent-present scale
Maize streak virus incidence
Maize streak virus incidence (MSV) incidence.
MSVInc
Maize streak virus incidence
DMJInc - Computation
Divide the total number of DMJ damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
TslTyp - Estimation
Standard method for tassel type.
1-3 Ear position scale
Divide the total number of plants that are root lodged due to weak soil or poorly developed anchorage roots by the total number of plants that are harvested.
RLodgInc - Computation
Proline - Measurement
Standard method for proline content.
TslAnCol - Estimation
Standard method for tassel Anthocyanin coloration.
Stewarts wilt incidence
SteWiltInc
Stewarts wilt incidence
Stewart wilt (Erwinia stewartii) incidence.
Ear number
Ear number.
EN
number
SmaySev - Estimation
Observe stenocarpella ear rot severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Abscisic acid content in the grain.
Grain abscisic acid content
Abscisic acid content
GABA
Sorghum downy mildew (Peronosclerospora sorghi) severity.
DMSSev
Sorghum downy mildew severity
Sorghum downy mildew severity
Observe head smut severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
HSmutSev - Estimation
cm/day
Endosperm hardness
EndoHard
Endosperm hardness.
hardness
Sugarcane downy mildew (Peronosclerospora sacchari) incidence.
Sugarcane downy mildew incidence
Sugarcane downy mildew incidence
PsacchInc
texture
Grain texture as a measure of the variation on the intensity of a surface, quantifying properties such as smoothness, coarseness and regularity of the grain.
GTex
Grain texture
Count the number of tillers per plant (average of more than 20 representative) plants.
Tillering - Counting
Observe phaeosphaeria leaf spot severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
PLSSev - Estimation
Bacterial stalk rot incidence
BactSRInc
Bacterial stalk rot (Erwinia chrysanthemi) incidence.
Bacterial stalk rot incidence
1-5 disease scoring scale
Count the total number of ears with bad husk cover.
BHskCovInc - Counting
Sen - Estimation
Observe dead leaf area per plant/plot and rate.
Diatraea damage
Plant damage caused by Diatraea species.
DiatraeaDmg
Diatraea damage
bad husk cover incidence
BHskCovInc
Ear bad husk cover incidence
Ears bad husk cover incidence.
Count the total number of plants that are affected by corn stunt complex per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
CSCInc - Counting
Divide the total numbers of plants with lodged stems by number of plants harvested.
SLodgInc - Computation
Grain proline content
Proline content
GProline
Proline content in the grain.
Earworm incidence
Earworm incidence
EWormInc
Ear worm (Heliothis) incidence.
g/plot
Standard method for glucose content.
Glucose - Measurement
OP - Measurement
Standard method for osmotic potential.
length
Grain length
GLng
Grain length.
1-3 Tassel density scale
Observe tarspot complex severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
TSCSev - Estimation
1-5 Pericarp color scale
1-5 Stem color scale
Ash content in maize leaves.
LAsh
Ash content
Leaf ash content
DMSSev - Estimation
Observe sorghum downy mildew severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
EndoTrp - Measurement
Standard method for endosperm tryptophan content.
FusSRInc - Counting
Count the plants that are affected by fusarium stalk rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Whole-grain ash content.
Grain ash content
GAsh
Ash content
YLChl - Measurement
Standard method for young leaf chlorophyll content.
Plant height
height
PH
Plant height from the base to the top part (in reproductive stages to the top of the tassel).
Rank number
OA
osmotic adjustment
Osmotic adjustment as ability of the plant to adjust the osmotic potential under stress conditions.
Osmotic adjustment
Sucrose - Measurement
Standard method for sucrose content.
Silk growth rate
growth rate
SilkGrwR
Growth rate of silk.
Count the number of plants that are affected by philippine downy mildew per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
PDMInc - Counting
Striga damage
Striga damage
StrigaDmg
Damage of Striga hermonthica plants on maize plants.
Calculated as relative grain yield agaisnst the best check in percentage.
Relative to check - Computation
EHvst - Counting
Count the total number of ears harvested per plot/entry, excluding secondary ears that are extremely small.
Grain protein content
Whole-grain protein content.
Protein content
GProt
Tropical rust (Physopella zeae) severity.
Tropical rust severity
TRustSev
Tropical rust severity
Harvest ears per plot (eliminate first and last plants to avoid border effects) and score ear aspect combining several ear-associated traits. Note: Combination of traits usually differs from one breeder to another depending on type of study.
EAsp - Estimation
SRInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by stalk rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
GUpSSh
upper surface shape
Grain upper surface shape
Shape of the upper surface of grain.
Presence and intensity of hairs on the surface of the leaf sheath.
Sheath pubescence
pubescence
ShtPub
kg/plot
SilkGrwR - Computation
Standard method for silk growth rate.
RustSev - Estimation
Observe rust severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Corn stunt complex (corn stunt spiroplasma, maize bushy stunt phytoplasma [= mycoplasma], maize rayado fino virus) incidence.
Corn stunt incidence
Corn stunt incidence
CSCInc
Ant
Anthesis time.
Anthesis time
anthesis time
Calculate shelled grain yield per unit area calculated in dry weight basis.
Dry weight basis GY - Computation
GOil
Whole-grain oil content.
Oil content
Grain oil content
PHFL - Measurement
Recommended to take multiple plants and measure the height between the base of a plant to the ligule of the flag leaf, enter the data individually in the FieldBook and calculate the average.
EDia - Measurement
Measure, when applicable, ear diameter at the central part of uppermost ears of at least 20 representative plants per accession.
Standard method for ear leaf length.
ELLng - Measurement
Tassel angle.
Tassel opening
TslOpen
opening
Fusarium graminearum stalk rot incidence
FgramSRInc
Fusarium graminearum stalk rot incidence
Fusarium graminearum stalk rot incidence.
BCLSSev
Bacterial leaf stripe severity
Bacterial leaf stripe severity
Bacterial leaf stripe (Pseudomonas rubrilinians) severity.
weevil
weight
Grain weight of mature kernels.
GW
Grain weight
Observe aspergillus ear rot severity on the harvested ears per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
AspERSev - Estimation
Count the number of plants that are affected by maize bushy stunt per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
MRFVInc - Counting
Stenocarpella stalk rot incidence
StenSRInc
Stenocarpella stalk rot incidence
Stenocarpella (=Diplodia) stalk rot incidence.
ng/g
index
Count the number of plants that are affected by head smut per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
HSmutInc - Counting
Standard method for aflatoxin content.
Aflatox - Measurement
1-5 Tassel blasting severity scale
Number of tillers per plant.
Tillering
tillering
Tillering
Divide the total number of MRCV damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
MRCVInc - Computation
AstriInc - Computation
Divide the total number of ASTRI damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Polysora rust severity
Polysora rust (in lowlands Puccinia polysora) severity.
PpolySev
Polysora rust severity
height to ligule of the flag leaf
Plant height to ligule of the flag leaf
Plant height from the base to the ligule of the flag leaf.
PHFL
ALBInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by anthracnose leaf blight per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Maize dwarf mosaic virus severity
Maize dwarf mosaic virus incidence
DMVSev
Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) severity.
maturity time
Mat
Maturity time
Maturity time.
Shell the grains (kernels) from the ears harvested per plot and record fresh (field) weight.
FW GY - Measurement
Tar spot complex severity
TSCSev
Tar spot complex (Phyllachora maydis, Monographella maydis) severity.
Tar spot complex severity
Pythium stalk rot (Pythium spp.) incidence.
PytSRInc
Pythium stalk rot incidence
Pythium stalk rot incidence
Text
Grain row number
grain row number
GRN
Number of grain rows in the central part of the uppermost ear.
PericCol - Estimation
Observe the pericarp color, when applicable, on at least 20 representative plants per accession.
weight loss by maize weevil
GWLostWeev
Loss of weight of the grain samples caused by weevil (Sitophilus zeamais) feeding during a given period of incubation.
Grain weight loss by maize weevil
Leaf rolling severity
LRollSev
Severity of leaf rolling, usually scored under drought stress.
rolling severity
Anthocyanin coloration of stigmas.
SilkCol
Silk Anthocyanin coloration
Anthocyanin coloration
Observe tropical severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
TRustSev - Estimation
HSmutInc - Computation
Divide the total number of HSmut damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
SCMVInc
Sugarcane mosaic virus incidence
Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) incidence.
Sugarcane mosaic virus incidence
GW DW - Measurement
Count and weigh grains randomly selected from the total grains.
SdlngDisInc - Counting
Count the seedling that are affected by seedling diseases per plot.
Number of plants harvested per unit area.
Plants harvested
havested number
PHvst
EAsp
Observation of harvested ears based on some morphological and agronomical characters such as ear size, total numbers of ear harvested per plot, ear damaged caused by insects or/and diseases.
Ear aspect
aspect
method_of
Observe fusarium ear rot severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
FusERSev - Estimation
BactSRInc - Computation
Divide the total number of BactSR damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
1-11 Grain type scale
PDMInc
Philippine downy mildew incidence
Philippine downy mildew incidence
Philippine downy mildew (Peronosclerospora philippinensis) incidence.
kg/ha
DiatraeaDmg - Estimation
Observe the plant damage caused by Diatraea plot.
CRustSev - Estimation
Observe common rust severity on plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
GUpSSh - Estimation
Observe the shape of the upper surface of grain, when applicable, on at least 20 representative plants per accession, after harvest.
row/ear
Standard method for whole-grain starch content.
GStarch - Measurement
Observe the endosperm color, when applicable, on at least 20 representative plants per accession.
EndoCol - Estimation
BCLSSev - Estimation
Observe bacterial leaf stripe severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
GTex - Estimation
Observe the variation of the intensity of a kernel/grain surface and score grain texture based on properties such as smoothness, coarseness and regularity of the grain.
Count and weigh grains randomly selected from the total grains.
GW FW - Measurement
Count the number of plants that have more than one ear growing from the same node.
MCob - Counting
Standard method for endosperm protein content.
EndoProt - Measurement
Standard method for leaf erectness
LErect - Estimation
TslCol
Anthocyanin coloration of tassel.
Tassel Anthocyanin coloration
Anthocyanin coloration
yyyymmdd
Observe fusarium moniliforme stalk rot severity on plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
FmonSRSev - Estimation
g/200grain
Maize weevil incidence
WeevInc
Maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais) incidence on grain.
Maize weevil incidence
1-5 Tassel exertion scale
CTMInc - Computation
Divide the total number of CTM damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
1-4 Leaf erectness scale
Observe grain row arrangement in the harvested ears and rate 1-4 categorical scale.
GRArr - Estimation
TslBlastSev
Tassel blasting severity
Observation of blasting severity of the tassel (necrosis due to heat stress) at the time of flowering. It occurs under extreme temperatures and drought.
blasting severity
width
GWid
Grain width.
Grain width
MRCVInc
Mal de rio cuarto virus (MRCV) incidence.
Mal de rio cuarto virus incidence
Mal de rio cuarto virus incidence
BLSBSev
Banded leaf and sheath blight severity
Banded leaf and sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani f. sp. sasakii) severity.
Banded leaf and sheath blight severity
TslGlBAnCol - Estimation
Standard method for glumes base tassel Anthocyanin coloration.
ELChl - Measurement
Standard method for ear leaf chlorophyll content.
Sen
Leaf senescence.
Senescence
senescence
Insertion angle of the leaves.
Leaf erectness
LErect
erectness
Stomatal conductance
Stomatal conductance
SCond
Leaf stomatal conductance
Observe fusarium moniliforme ear rot severity on plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
FmonERSev - Estimation
ear leaf senescence time
ELSen
Ear leaf senescence time.
Ear leaf senescence time
Count the number of plants that are affected by maize dwarf mosaic virus per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
DMVInc - Counting
Curvularia leaf spot severity
Curvularia leaf spot (Curvularia spp.) severity.
CLSSev
Curvularia leaf spot severity
root lodging incidence
RLodgInc
Root lodging incidence. The plants that show root lodging, i.e. those stems that are inclining by more than 45¡.
Root lodging incidence
ALBInc - Computation
Divide the total number of ALB damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
g/100grain
GNC
Nitrogen content
Grain Nitrogen content
Whole-grain Nitrogen content.
Observe GLS severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
GLSSev - Estimation
Fusarium stalk rot incidence.
FusSRInc
Fusarium stalk rot incidence
Fusarium stalk rot incidence
Standard method for whole-grain iron content.
GIron - Measurement
SdlngDisInc
Seedling disease incidence
Seedling disease incidence.
Seedling disease incidence
StenSRInc - Computation
Divide the total number of StenSR damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
GZinc - Measurement
Standard method for whole-grain zinc content.
GAsh - Measurement
Standard method for whole-grain ash content
ALBInc
Anthracnose leaf blight incidence
Anthracnose (Colletotrichum graminicola) incidence.
Anthracnose leaf blight incidence
Standard method for maize weevil number in a sample. Weevils were counted only once (at the end of a 45-d incubation period)
WeevN - Counting
1-5 Vigor scale
mm
PytSRInc - Computation
Divide the total number of PytSR damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
ng/µg
LProline
Leaf proline content
Proline content in the leaf.
Proline content
Divide the total number of Psacch damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
PsacchInc - Computation
Weight of ear leaf (blade).
weight
ELW
Ear leaf weight
Count the number of plants that are affected by DMJ per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
DMJInc - Counting
Standard method for whole-grain pro-vitaminA content.
GVitA - Measurement
1-5 rating scale
Standard method for whole-grain Nitrogen content
GNC - Measurement
Count the total number of emerged striga plants per plot. It is counted three times, 8 weeks, 10 weeks and 12 weeks after planting.
StrigaPN - Counting
TslGlCol
Anthocyanin coloration
Tassel glumes Anthocyanin coloration
Anthocyanin coloration of tassel glumes excluding the bases of the glumes.
Anthesis date - Estimation
Date when 50% of the plants shed pollen. Observe a known number of plants carefully (guideline: N = 20 for inbred lines or hybrids; N = 35 for open pollinated varieties) at the same time each day until 50% of the plants in the plot have produced at least one visible anther and record the date.
LateWiltInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by late wilt per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
LAsh- Measurement
Standard method for leaves ash content
uF
Count the number of plants that are affected by charcoal rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
CharRInc - Counting
PUnif - Estimation
Standard method for plant uniformity
Grain type
Type of grain.
GTyp
type
1-3 density scale
Standard method for ear growth rate.
EGrwR - Computation
CTMInc
Crazy top (Sclerophthora macrospora) incidence.
Crazy top downy mildew incidence
Crazy top downy mildew incidence
Anther Anthocyanin coloration
Anthocyanin coloration
Anthocyanin coloration of anthers.
AntCol
¡C
UpESh
Uppermost ear shape
Shape of uppermost ear whether cylindrical or cylindrical-conical or conical or round.
shape
Growth rate of the ear(s) on a plant. It may include the sum of the apical and sub-apical ear growth from prolific plants.
growth rate
EGrwR
Ear growth rate
TslExer
Tassel exertion
Tassel exertion.
exertion
grain/plant
GThk
Thickness of the grain.
thickness
Grain thickness
1-3 size scale
MRDVInc - Computation
Divide the total number of MRDV damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Plant damage caused by Diabrotica species.
Diabrotica damage
DiabroticaDmg
Diabrotica damage
1-6 Endosperm color scale
Aspergillus flavus ear rot severity
Aspergillus flavus ear rot severity
AflavERSev
Aspergillus flavus ear rot severity.
EPo - Computation
Use ear height and plant height data of the same plants per plot and calculate the ratio. Small values indicate low ear position; large values indicate high ear position.
mg/g
t/ha
RootCapac - Measurement
Standard method for root capitance.
PHTslB - Measurement
Recommended to take multiple plants and measure the height from the base of a plant to the insertion of the first tassel branch, enter the data individually in the FieldBook and calculate the average.
CSmutInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by the common smut per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
EH
Plant height from base to the insertion of the top (uppermost) ear.
height to insertion of uppermost ear
Ear height
1-5 Leaf color scale
Score maize weevil damage on the plants per plot.
WeevInc - Estimation
Anthocyanin coloration of cob glumes.
Cob glumes Anthocyanin coloration
Anthocyanin coloration
CobGlCol
Ear width
Ear width.
EWid
width
Divide the total number of MSV damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
MSVInc - Computation
TslBlastSev - Estimation
Standard method for tassel blasting.
1-5 Tassel opening scale
Severity of common rust ( Puccinia sorghi).
Common rust severity
Common rust severity
CRustSev
Stem borer damage includes different stem borers such as Chilo partellus, Sesamia spp. and Spodoptera.
StBorDmg
Stem borer damage
Stem borer damage
Record the date when excised kernels are longitudinally cut to expose a black internal abscission layer at the base of the kernel that signals the kernel has ceased to absorb nutrients or moisture from the mother plants.
Maturity date - Estimation
WI - Measurement
Standard method for water index.
LCol
color
Leaf color
Color of the leaf.
Observe turcicum leaf blight severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
EturcSev - Estimation
Grain Tryptophan content
Tryptophan content
GTrp
Whole-grain Tryptophan content.
Standard method for tassel density
TslDen - Estimation
Aphid damage
Aphid damage
Aphids (Rhopalosiphum maidis) damage.
AphDmg
Divide the total number of CharRot damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
CharRInc - Computation
DMSInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by sorghum downy mildew per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Standard method for tassel branches dry weight.
TslBW - Measurement
GMoi - Computation
Measure sample weight of grains per plot after harvest, record dry weight of the same samples and calculate grain moisture content for each sample using formula: 100*(Wt of sample - Dry Weight)/Wt of sample.
Grain moisture.
Grain moisture
moisture content
GMoi
BmaySev - Estimation
Observe maydis leaf blight severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
LCol - Estimation
Standard method for leaf color.
CSmutInc - Computation
Divide the total number of CSN damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
EndoLys - Measurement
Standard method for endosperm lysin content.
Calculate shelled grain yield per unit area calculated in fresh (field) weight basis.
FW GY - Computation
CTMInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by CTM per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
StdGerm - Estimation
Standard method for standard germination
Growing degree days to maturity - Computation
Calculated as growing-degree units or growing degree days between sowing and maturity.
BLSBSev - Estimation
Observe banded leaf and sheath blight severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Count the number of plants that are affected by maize rough dwarf virus per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
MRDVInc - Counting
CCI
Standard method for canopy temperature.
CT - Measurement
AphDmg - Estimation
Observe the plant damage caused by aphids per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Leaf length.
LLng
length
Leaf length
EShape - Estimation
Standard method for ear shape
1-5 Endosperm hardness scale
NIRS GProt- Measurement
NIRS method for whole-grain protein content.
AWormDmg - Estimation
Observe the plant damage caused by army worms per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
MSVInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by maize streak virus per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Determine ear position using 1-3 scale.
EPo - Estimation
Ear worm (Heliothis) damage.
Earworm damage
EWormDmg
Earworm damage
PRI - Measurement
Standard method for photochemical radiation index.
Divide the total number of MRFV damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
MRFVInc - Computation
BactSRInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by bacterial stalk rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
PH - Measurement
Recommended to take multiple plants and measure the height from the base of a plant to the top of the tassel, enter the data individually in the FieldBook and calculate the average.
Number of days from sowing to when 50% of the plants have a dry ear leaf. Count the number of days from sowing to when 50% of the plants have a dry ear leaf. Also, it can be calculated using sowing and ear leaf senescence date.
Days to ear leaf senescence date - Computation
Observe penicillium ear rot severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
PERSev - Estimation
OA - Measurement
Standard method for osmotic adjustment.
PHvst - Counting
Count the total number of plants harvested per plot/entry.
Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV) incidence.
Maize rayado fino virus incidence
Maize rayado fino virus incidence
MRFVInc
AntAnCol - Estimation
Standard method for tassel anthers Anthocyanin coloration. The observation should be made in the middle third of the main branch on fresh anthers.
Observe curvularia leaf spot severity on plants per plot based on the degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
CLSSev - Estimation
color
Aleurone color
Color of the aleurone.
AleuCol
LSucrose
Sucrose content in the leaf
Leaf sucrose content
Sucrose content
Ear rot incidence.
ERInc
Ear rot incidence
Ear rot incidence
EWid - Measurement
Meaure ear width.
density
Density of spikelets.
Tassel density
TslDen
1-5 Anthocyanin coloration scale
1-5 Aleurone color scale
umol/g
Observe the aleurone color, when applicable, on at least 20 representative plants per accession.
AleuCol - Estimation
ASI
Anthesis silking interval
Anthesis silking interval.
anthesis silking interval
ear/plant
1-9 Anthocyanin coloration scale
0-1 absent-present scale
BHskCovInc - Estimation
Observation of ears with bad husk cover.
EndoHard - Estimation
Determine quality of endosperm such as hardness in the lab and use 1-5 to scale to score it.
Busseola damage incidence
Busseola incidence
BusseolaInc
Busseola larvae incidence.
Divide the total number of ears with bad husk cover by the total number of ears harvested.
BHskCovInc - Computation
Standard method for tassel branches number.
TslBN - Counting
0-10 Senescence scale
CSSSev - Estimation
Observe fusarium graminearum ear rot severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection.
Observe the plant damage caused by chilo per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
ChiloDmg - Estimation
husk cover
Ear husk cover
Ear husk cover observed as degree of the husk covering the tip of the ear.
HskCov
1-5 Standard germination scale
GZinc
Grain zinc content
Whole-grain zinc content.
Zinc content
Ear position ratio
Observation of lodging severity.
LodgInc
lodging incidence
Lodging incidence
GCol - Estimation
Count total number of grain rows in the ear.
tiller/plant
LodgInc - Estimation
Scored for severity of lodging.
g
ABA - Measurement
Standard method for abscisic acid content.
1-9 Grain color scale
PUnif
Plant uniformity
Uniformity of plants.
uniformity
1-3 Tassel branching type scale
Observe maize busy stunt severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
CSCMSev - Estimation
Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) incidence.
Maize dwarf mosaic virus incidence
DMVInc
Maize dwarf mosaic virus incidence
EDmg - Estimation
Observe the ears damage caused by ear rot and/or insects per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Divide the total number of CSC damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
CSCInc - Computation
1-6 Grain upper surface shape scale
ug/mg
Stalk rot incidence
Stalk rot (multiple pathogens or an unidentified pathogen) incidence.
Stalk rot incidence
SRInc
Observe brown spot severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
BwSpotSev - Estimation
Corn stunt spiroplasma severity
Corn Spiroplasma stunt severity
Corn stunt spiroplasma severity.
CSSSev
ProvitaminA content
Grain provitaminA content
GVitA
Whole-grain pro-vitaminA content.
EW
Ear weight
weight
Weight of mature upper ear, including cob and kernels, and at a defined moisture content, although often this is not provided.
GTW
test weight
Grain test weight of mature kernels.
Grain test weight
Photochemical radiation index. A canopy reflectance index indicating photosynthetic radiation use efficiency.
Photochemical radiation index
PRI
photochemical radiation index
FusERSev
Fusarium ear rot severity
Fusarium ear rot severity.
Fusarium ear rot severity
Standard method for cob tassel Anthocyanin coloration. The anthocyanin Anthocyanin colorationation should be observed on the middle third of the uppermost cob, after the removal of some of the grains.
CobGlAnCol - Estimation
ERInc - Computation
Divide the total number of ears that are rotten by the total number of plants that are harvested.
Optimum number of measurements: i) Vegetative stage: Weekly measurements from 2 to 6 weeks after planting; ii) Flowering: only for inbred lines.
NDVI - Measurement
Calculated as growing-degree units or growing degree days between sowing and 50% anthesis.
Growing degree days to anthesis - Computation
PVig
vigor
Plant vigor.
Plant vigor
Ear position as a ratio of ear height to plant height.
Ear position
position
EPo
Number of days from sowing to when 50% of the plants silk. Also, it can be calculated using sowing and silking date.
DTS - Computation
Head smut severity
Head smut severity
HSmutSev
Head smut (Sphacelotheca reiliana) severity.
TslGlBCol
Anthocyanin coloration at base of tassel glumes.
Anthocyanin coloration
Tassel glumes base Anthocyanin coloration
Leaf width
Leaf width.
width
LWid
LRollSev - Estimation
Observe the plants per plot with the leaves rolled.
Divide the total number of PDM damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
PDMInc - Computation
FmonSRInc - Computation
Divide the total number of FmonSR damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Observe the plant damage caused by stem borer per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
StBorDmg - Estimation
FungDis
The trait is scored for the response to the diseases caused by several fungi.
Fungal disease presence
Fungal disease presence
Observe the ears hask cover and rate it.
HskCov - Estimation
Ear damage
EDmg
Ear damage caused by ear rot and/or insects, etc.
Ear damage
Days to maturity - Computation
Number of days required from seeding to grain ripening. Also, it can be calculated using sowing and maturity date.
branch
Seed weight loss was determined using the count and weight method of Gwinner et al (1996). Weight loss (%) = (Wu x Nd) - (Wd x Nu) x 100 / Wu x (Nd + Nu) where Wu=weight of the undamaged seed, Nu = number of undamaged seed, Wd = Weight of damaged seed, and Nd=Number of damaged seed.
GWLostWeev - Measurement
Count total number of plants per plot.
PStand - Counting
size
Tassel size.
TslSiz
Tassel size
Brown spot (Physoderma maydis) severity.
Brown spot severity
Brown spot severity
BwSpotSev
1-3 Ear shape scale
SteWiltInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by stewart wilt per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Standard method for oil content
GOil - Measurement
ASI - Computation
Count number of days from planting date to anthesis and silking to determine days to anthesis (DTA) and days to silking (DTS), respectively and determine anthesis silking interval (ASI) by calculating: ASI = DTS-DTA.
Measured with a portable chlorophyll meter (e.g. SPAD). Take the average measure from leaves of six alternating plants and use always leaves of similar insertion level.
Chl - Measurement
DW GY - Measurement
Shell the grains (kernels) from the ears harvested per plot and put grains in a paper bag and dry at 60-70¡C for 1-2 days, then measure and record the weight of dried grain.
MSTVInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by maize stripe virus per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
GTrp - Measurement
Standard method for whole-grain tryptophan content.
MLNSev - Estimation
Observe maize lethal necrosis severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
¡C day
Harvest all ears in a plot (or row), put them in the nylon bag and dry at 60-70¡C for 1-2 days, then measure and record the weight of dried ears.
EarW Field weight - Measurement
color
Cob glumes color
CobGlCol
Color of the cob glumes.
BSDMInc
Brown stripe downy mildew incidence
Brown stripe downy mildew (Sclerophthora rayssiae var. zeae) incidence.
Brown stripe downy mildew incidence
Chlorophyll content
Chlorophyll content in the ear leaf.
Ear leaf chlorophyll content
ELChl
Observe polysora rust severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
PpolySev - Estimation
Ear leaf senescence date - Computation
Record date when 50% of the plants have a dry ear leaf.
Standard method for tassel exertion
TslExer - Estimation
EWormInc - Counting
Count the number of ear damage caused by earworm per plot.
Fusarium moniliforme stalk rot severity
FmonSRSev
Fusarium moniliforme stalk rot severity
Fusarium moniliforme stalk rot severity.
Measure the thickness of the same 10 grains used for taking grain length measurement.
GThk - Measurement
Lysine content
EndoLys
Endosperm Lysine content
Lysine content in grain endosperm.
Divide the total number of SeedlingDis affected plants by the total number of plants harvested.
SdlngDisInc - Computation
Weight of tassel branches.
Tassel branch weight
weight
TslBW
color
Color of the pericarp.
PericCol
Pericarp color
Java downy mildew (Peronosclerospora maydis) incidence.
DMJInc
Java downy mildew incidence
Java downy mildew incidence
Stem lodging incidence
SLodgInc
Stem lodging incidence. The plants that show stem lodging, i.e. those stems that are broken below the ear.
stem lodging incidence
Plant height to insertion of first tassel branch
height to insertion of first tassel branch
PHTslB
Plant height from the base to the insertion of the first tassel branch.
Standard method for silk Anthocyanin coloration.
SilkAnCol - Estimation
Glucose content
Root glucose content
RGlucose
Glucose content in the root.
Observe maize dwarf mosaic virus severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
DMVSev - Estimation
Abscisic acid content
RABA
Abscisic acid content in the root.
Root abscisic acid content
DMSev
Downy mildew severity
Downy mildews (several species of the genera Peronosclerospora, Sclerospora, and Sclerophthora) severity.
Downy mildew severity
Score the grains based on grain characters such as floury, dent per plot.
GTyp - Estimation
Black bundle incidence
Black bundle incidence
AstriInc
Black bundle (Acremonium strictum) incidence.
NDVI
Normalized difference vegetation index
Canopy normalized difference vegetation index.
normalized difference vegetation index
GLng - Measurement
Average of 10 consecutive grains from one row in the middle of the uppermost ear, measured with calliper.
Standard germination
StdGerm
Standard germination.
Standard germination
Grain yield
Grain yield per unit area, either field weight basis, dry weight basis or adjusted to 12.5% grain moisture.
GY
yield
SCond - Measurement
Measured with a portable porometer. Take the measures in the middle between leaf tip and leaf base, and in between leaf midrib and leaf rim. Blade sections measured must to be exposed to sunlight for at least the 30 minutes before. Measurements always performed in the same side of the leaf (usually the lower or abaxial one). One measurement per leaf, and at least 3 per plot. 1 min per measurement.
Sucrose content
RSucrose
Sucrose content in the root.
Root sucrose content
Count the number of plants that are affected by mal de rio cuarto virus per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
MRCVInc - Counting
LLng - Measurement
Measure the leaf which subtends the uppermost ear from ligule to apex.
Fusarium graminearum ear rot severity.
Fusarium graminearum ear rot severity
FgramERSev
Fusarium graminearum ear rot severity
Divide the total number of FgramSR damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
FgramSRInc - Computation
Count the plants that are affected by fusarium moniliforme stalk rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
FmonSRInc - Counting
NIRS method for leaves ash content
NIRS LAsh - Measurement
Count the number of plants that are affected by sugarcane downy mildew per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
PsacchInc - Counting
1-4 Grain row arrangement scale
Observe the maize plant damage caused by striga per plot.
StrigaDmg - Estimation
Gray leaf spot severity
Gray leaf spot (Cercospora zeae-maydis) severity.
Gray leaf spot severity
GLSSev
EWormDmg - Measurement
Standard method for earworm damage measured in cm of feeding. 0 - no ear damage, 1 - 1 cm, + 1 for each additional cm of feeding
DMVInc - Computation
Divide the total number of DMV damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Shelled cob weight
Weight of shelled cob.
weight or yield
ShellCobW
1-5 Leaf rolling severity scale
GLys - Measurement
Standard method for whole-grain lysin content.
ppm
scale_of
Ear shape
Ear shape
shape
EShape
EarW Dry weight - Measurement
Harvest all ears in a plot (or row), put them in the nylon bag and record weight. If at all possible, delay harvest of maize until its moisture content is low (15-25%).
Record shelled cob field weight.
ShellCobW - Measurement (duplicate)
grain row arrangement
Grain row arrangement
Ear grain rows arrangement.
GRArr
TslOpen - Estimation
Standard method for tassel opening
GN
Grain number
number
Grain number.
Chlorophyll content
Leaf chlorophyll content.
Chl
Chlorophyll content
Chlorophyll content
YLChl
Young leaf chlorophyll content
Chlorophyll content in the young leaf.
RLodgInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that show root lodging and record data in filedbook. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
SilkLng - Measurement
Standard method for silk length.
Silking time.
Silk
Silking time
silking time
Days to anthesis - Computation
Number of days from sowing to when 50% of the plants shed pollen. Observe a known number of plants carefully (guideline: N = 20 for inbred lines or hybrids; N = 35 for open pollinated varieties) at the same time each day until 50% of the plants in the plot have produced at least one visible anther and score the number of days from sowing. Also, it can be calculated using sowing and anthesis date.
Observe the plant damage caused by large grain borer per plot
LGBDmg - Estimation
Mpa
Relative grain yield expressed as percentage of the mean grain yield of the trial. Values above 100% indicate above-average performance; values below 100% indicate below-average performance.
RGY - Computation
pg/g
GCol
Grain color
color
Color of the grain.
Shell the grains (kernels) from the ears harvested per plot and put grains in a paper bag and dry at 60-70¡C for 1-2 days, then measure and record the weight of dried grain.
DW GY - Measurement
GProt - Computation
Standard method for whole-grain protein content. % Protein = % of nitrogen x 6.25
ShtPub - Estimation
Standard method for sheath pubescence content.
1-3 Cob color scale
DMSInc - Computation
Divide the total number of DMS damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Silking date - Estimation
Observe plants carefully and record date when 50% of plants within a plot area have silks visible (female flowering date). This is determined on a daily basis by counting the number of plants with at least one silk extruded divided by the total number of plants in the plot.
Large grain borer (Prostephanus truncatus) damage.
Large grain borer damage
Large grain borer damage
LGBDmg
Endosperm color
color
EndoCol
Color of the endosperm.
1-4 Ear shape scale
ug/g
g/plant/day
Whole-grain Lysine content.
Lysine content
GLys
Grain Lysine content
Observe the stem color between the two topmost ears.
StemCol - Estimation
Ear leaf length
ELLng
Ear leaf (blade) length.
length
Abscisic acid content in the leaf.
LABA
Abscisic acid content
Leaf abscisic acid content
Count the number of plants that are affected by brown stripe downy mildew per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
BSDMInc - Counting
Endosperm protein content
Protein content in grain endosperm.
Protein content
EndoProt
EDia
Ear diameter
Ear diameter measured at the central part of uppermost ear.
diameter
Maize streak virus severity (MSV) severity.
Maize streak virus severity
MSVSev
Maize streak virus severity
color
Color of the stem.
Stem color
StemCol
The number of maize weevils (Sitophilus zeamais) hatching and emerging from an infested grain sample within a given period. Large values indicate susceptibility to grain weevils, small values indicate partial resistance to grain weevils.
WeevN
Maize weevil number in Grain
Maize weevil number
Ear shelling ratio
PERSev
Penicillium ear rot severity.
Penicillium ear rot severity
Penicillium ear rot severity
Silk length
length
SilkLng
Silk length.
Maydis leaf blight severity
BmaySev
Maydis leaf blight severity
Maydis leaf blight (Bipolaris maydis = Helminthosporium maydis) severity.
SRInc - Computation
Divide the total number of SRot damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Fusarium moniliforme stalk rot incidence
FmonSRInc
Fusarium moniliforme stalk rot incidence
Fusarium moniliforme stalk rot incidence.
DMSev - Estimation
Observe downy mildew severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Compute number of ears using the formula.
EN - Computation
Tryptophan content in grain endosperm.
Tryptophan content
Endosperm Tryptophan content
EndoTrp
Count the plants that are affected by fusarium graminearum stalk rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
FgramSRInc - Counting
Turcicum leaf blight severity
Turcicum leaf blight (Exserohilum turcicum = Helminthosporium turcicum) severity.
Turcicum leaf blight severity
EturcSev
lb/plot
RustSev
Rust severity
Multiple rust pathogens severity.
Rust severity
Divide the total number of LateWilt damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
LateWiltInc - Computation
LWid - Measurement
Take same leaf measured for leaf length and measure mid-way along its length.
ERInc - Counting
Count the total number of ears that damaged or/and rotten per plot.
Observe fusarium graminearum ear rot severity on ears per plot based on degree of infection.
FgramERSev - Estimation
ELng
Ear length.
length
Ear length
A measure of the potential of water to move between regions of differing concentrations across a water-permeable membrane.
osmotic potential
Osmotic potential
OP
Iron content
GIron
Grain iron content
Whole-grain iron content.
Standard method for glumes tassel Anthocyanin coloration. The measurement should exclude the bases of the glumes.
TslGlAnCol - Estimation
Divide the total number of SCMV damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
SCMVInc - Computation
Charcoal rot incidence
Charcoal rot incidence
CharRInc
Charcoal rot or (Macrophomina phaseolina) incidence.
Grain glucose content
Glucose content
GGlucose
Glucose content in the grain.
MSVSev - Estimation
Observe the plants that are affected by maize streak virus per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
BSDMInc - Computation
Divide the total number of BSDM damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
branching type
TslTyp
Branching type of tassel.
Tassel branching type
PStand
stand
Plant stand
Number of plants per unit area.
ELW - Measurement
Standard method for ear leaf weight.
lb/bsh
Aflatoxin content
Aflatoxin content
Grain Aflatoxins content produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus.
Aflatox
Measure on the same 10 grains used for taking grain length measurement.
GWid - Measurement
variable_of
multiple cob incidence
Incidence of multiple cobs, as plants that have multiple ears arising from a single node.
Multiple cob incidence
MCob
ppb